OBJECTING TO ANIMAL DISSECTION

A COLLEGE STUDENT'S HANDBOOK BY NAVS

Formated By Dental Friends

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Introductory Letters:

Dear Student:
Your decision to refuse participation in dissection exercises represents a courageous stand in defense of animals unable to defend themselves. You have the right to have your ethical beliefs respected by your professor and fellow students without being penalized. Although your objection to dissection may be an unpopular decision, rest assured that you are not alone in your convictions. The NAVS Dissection Hotline fields hundreds of calls every week from like-minded students.

The National Anti-Vivisection Society was founded by an idealistic group of people outraged by the infliction of suffering of animals in the pursuit of science. Today we are bolstered by support from those who know there are better and more humane ways of advancing human health and scientific knowledge. We are committed to the advancement of science education which imparts respect for life as well as an understanding of biology. We assert that dissection imparts a contradictory message--one which compromises an individual's empathy to the suffering of others.

We hope that this booklet provides you with the information you need to support your compassionate decision. Please call us if you have any questions or need additional assistance. Encourage your parents and instructors to call us, too, for current information on innovations in science education which do not inflict suffering on animals.

Sincerely,

Peggy Cunniff
NAVS Executive Director

Dear Concerned Student:

By contacting the NAVS Dissection Hotline, you've already taken the first step toward protesting animal dissection in college courses. This booklet is designed to help you take the first step down the path to an ethical scientific education.

Refusing to dissect animals can be a difficult choice. I know from experience. In 1987 my daughter, Jenifer, decided she didn't want to dissect a frog in her high school biology class. Jenifer's simple ethical objection spiraled into a two-year struggle to establish her right not to harm animals in the classroom.

In a number of states students in grades kindergarten through high school have now won the right to refuse to dissect, harm or kill animals--and the right to substitute an alternative project. Other states (California, Florida, New York, and Pennsylvania) have policies that guarantee a student's right to refuse dissection. I believe that college students also deserve to have their rights respected.

We designed this handbook to assist students in taking a stand on their beliefs about humane education and respect for the environment. If after reading this booklet you have more questions about how to proceed, feel free to call me at our toll-free number, 1-800-922-FROG (3764).

Sincerely,


Pat Davis , Director
NAVS Dissection Hotline


TO DISSECT...OR OBJECT

A Question of Conscience

When dissection was introduced into the educational curriculum in the 1920s, it was thought to be a good learning tool in the study of anatomy, physiology and the theory of evolution. Today, more sophisticated teaching methods have been developed which can replace dissection and save animals.

But dissection is a big business. Every year millions of animals are killed to be dissected for educational experiments. Many of these animals, such as frogs, earthworms, crayfish and perch, are collected from their natural environments; in the process, their habitats are decimated and entire ecologies are threatened. Many other animals, such as rats, are bred merely to suffer and then die. A recent investigation of certain biological supply houses showed that cats obtained for dissection suffered very painful and cruel deaths.

Equally destructive is the desensitizing effect of mutilating and dismembering animals in the name of science and for the cause of "education." Somehow the study of "life science"-- meant to instill wonderment and respect for life--has become the science of death. Dissection teaches students that animal life is expendable and unimportant. As a result, some of the best potential scientists, who have a deep respect for animal life, may end up dropping out of a field they love because they refuse to take part in senseless killing.

Despite the availability of numerous innovative educational alternatives ranging from detailed models to computer simulations, animal dissection remains a fixture in most college biology, physiology and zoology courses. Year after year, millions of animals needlessly die in U.S. college classes to demonstrate basic anatomy, which could easily be taught by other means.

Recently, students around the country have begun to speak out against this misguided practice. As student objections to dissection become more vocal and visible, the use of humane, innovative teaching methods increases. In fact, many medical and veterinary schools have eliminated, or no longer require animal labs.

Every time a student exercises his or her right not to dissect animals, the awareness of the entire academic community is increased. By exercising your right as a student, you can help create an environment where respect for animals is considered the norm.

SAYING NO TO DISSECTION

Guidelines To Consider When Raising Your Objection to Your Professor

1. VOICE OBJECTIONS EARLY

First, clarify your reasons for requesting an alternative, and decide how far you are willing to take matters. Before the term starts, or as soon as possible thereafter, ask your professor whether you will be expected to dissect or use live animals. Find out precisely what you will be asked to do. Don't rely on your professor to give you advance warning. Tell your professor of your intention not to participate in dissection experiments as soon as possible; do not wait until the day of the dissection lab to voice your objection. This will give both you and your professor enough time to work out an acceptable alternative.

2. BE FIRM, BE CALM

State your objections calmly and clearly, and be prepared to discuss your reasons for refusing to dissect. Never approach your professor in an arrogant, self-righteous or confrontational manner. Presume that he or she may have a different belief system on the issue of animal use, and it is unlikely that you will change those views. On the other hand, stress that you do not wish this value system to be imposed upon you, as it conflicts with your ethical or spiritual beliefs.

3. SUGGEST ALTERNATIVES

Suggest reasonable alternatives that will meet the teaching goals of the course by some method that doesn't involve the harmful use of animals. This could include writing a paper, preparing anatomical charts or studying diagrams, videos or models. The alternative project should take an equivalent amount of time and effort and be relevant to the course work. Be prepared to be tested on the same materials as other students, as long as the test itself does not include a practical dissection, or the use of dissected specimens. You should not be penalized for doing an alternative project.

4. ASK FOR A STRAIGHT ANSWER

Ask your professor to respond promptly to your request for an alternative project so you'll have enough time to complete it. If you get a noncommittal or negative response, take your request to the appropriate department head or dean.

5. GET LEGAL ADVICE

The NAVS Dissection Hotline has had great success in negotiating with educational institutions on this issue. If you want legal advice or need to take legal action to defend your right to object to dissection, the NAVS Dissection Hotline can put you in touch with an attorney.

6. PASS A POLICY

Another approach is to organize like-minded students and go to your professor and department head as a group. Request that a formal policy be instituted which offers alternatives for students. Put your request, and the suggested policy in writing, and ask for a reply by a specific date. Get letters of support from students who have avoided science classes because of dissection requirements. You can also use the campus newspaper and radio station as a forum for discussion. Go to the Dean and Board of Trustees if necessary. Be polite but persistent. Tenacity is the key to success.

PUTTING IT INTO WORDS

Communicating Your Thoughts and Feelings About Animals and Dissection

Some students who refuse to dissect encounter resistance--and even hostility--from professors, department heads and deans. When your ethical beliefs are challenged, it's important to be prepared. Here are some arguments that you might come up against if you object to taking part in dissection, along with some possible responses.

HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTANDING BIOLOGY

There are many practical alternatives to dissection. I can get "hands-on" experience by using detailed models of animal anatomy, observing live animals, or dissecting plants. Also, some people learn more from clear, detailed diagrams or computer simulations than from animal specimens.

DISSECTION IS A COURSE REQUIREMENT, AND YOU HAVE TO DO WHAT'S REQUIRED TO PASS THE COURSE.

I'm willing to be tested on my knowledge acquired by means other than dissection. I'm willing to do as much work as anyone else--by studying books, computer programs, videos or models--to meet the standards of the course.

THE PROFESSOR'S ACADEMIC FREEDOM IS AT STAKE.

My freedom of belief is what really is at stake. All the professor is being asked to do is consent to an alternative procedure for me because I am morally opposed to dissection. Students who are willing to dissect can still do so.

YOU ARE BEING SQUEAMISH. YOU SHOULD FACE YOUR FEARS AND MAKE YOURSELF DO THE DISSECTION ANYWAY.

Refusing to dissect has nothing to do with being afraid. Being opposed to dissection is not a sign of emotional immaturity, but of compassion for animals.

YOU ARE NOT A VEGETARIAN (OR YOU WEAR LEATHER SHOES), SO THEREFORE YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO OBJECT TO DISSECTION.

I have the right to draw the line where my conscience dictates, and to have my beliefs respected. Some people believe that it is necessary to use animals for food (or clothing) while at the same time believing it is unnecessary to kill them for dissection. Others who eat meat believe it is wrong to eat dogs and cats, or to hunt. Everyone draws the line somewhere, and because of my moral beliefs, I draw the line at dissection.

YOU DON'T HAVE TO DISSECT, JUST WATCH.

I can't watch someone else doing something that I think is wrong. Watching is still taking part in the dissection, and I am unwilling to do that. I would like to be excused from the lab while the dissection is taking place.

DISSECTION TEACHES US TO UNDERSTAND LIFE.

Biology is supposed to teach us respect for life, but dissection teaches us that animal life is cheap and expendable.

YOU DON'T HAVE TO KILL THE ANIMAL, IT'S ALREADY DEAD.

Using an animal that was captured, bred or killed for dissection still contributes to the cruelty involved. Even if the animal was killed for other reasons (such as a dog or cat that was euthanized at an animal shelter), using the animal for educational purposes is supporting the notion that animals are merely "tools." Recently, biological supply companies have come under scrutiny for cruel and inhumane treatment of animals "processed" for dissection. Cats which were pets have been stolen and sold for profit, both in the U.S. and in Mexico. There is no way to determine if the animal you are asked to dissect was treated in a humane manner.

PUTTING IT IN WRITING

When you refuse to dissect, it may be necessary to send letters to your professor, department head and, if necessary, the dean in order to formally explain your beliefs.

Here are some suggestions for writing these letters:

  • Keep them short and to the point.
  • Do not be defensive or argumentative.
  • Stick to the issue, i.e. your right to have your beliefs respected, and your willingness to perform an alternative project.
  • Be sure to include a statement as to why you feel dissection violates your ethical or spiritual beliefs.
  • Provide your professor or department head with suggested alternatives, if you can.
  • Ask them to promptly reply to your request to do an alternative project.
  • State your willingness to commit an equivalent amount of time and energy.
  • Always keep copies of your letters for your own file, as these will be important if you ultimately take legal action. You should always keep a diary or written summary of your actions; include dates, times and subjects of conversations, as well as people involved.

    COLLEGE STUDENTS SPEAK OUT AGAINST DISSECTION


    Experiences of students who stood up for their beliefs:

    In our Animal Health Technology department, students in anatomy and physiology classes were required not only to dissect rats, but to kill them by putting them in a box and electrocuting them. Who gave us the right to take those rats and kill them like that? It is wasteful and redundant.

    Over the past year and a half, I've been telling the professors in the department that there's a better way. They stopped the process of having students kill the rats, and hired someone to kill the rats for the school. Yet students are still required to dissect rats in five labs per semester.

    Finally, I got the courage to say that morally, ethically and spiritually, this practice offends me and I'm unable to do it. The professor wouldn't allow me to do extra or alternative projects, and told me I'd still have to take the test after the class. But I studied on my own, through books and diagrams, and got an "A". Other people in the class who were afraid of saying "no" saw that I got good grades and wasn't harassed much. Maybe next time, they'll choose to do it, too. It helps when you are not alone. Next year the campus animal rights group will have the Dissection Hotline number at registration so people can call before the lab comes up, before they have to make a decision.

    Clarissa L., Riverside, CA


    I was taking a pre-med biology course, and I had no idea that dissection was required. I went to the professor, and then to the head of the department, to see if I could do an alternative project because I don't believe in dissection. Initially, I got some threats that I would have to withdraw from the course. The lab teacher tried to convince me that dissection is not only beneficial, but it's "really fun". They were dissecting earthworms, crayfish, sharks, frogs, and rats. Needless to say, I wasn't convinced. The professors were stubborn, but I didn't approach them with an attitude that they're wrong, and I'm right, because that would have antagonized them. I let them know that it's okay for them to have their beliefs, but I have my belief and I have a right to follow my conscience. Eventually, we sat down and talked about an alternative. When they really understood that I was serious, they put all their efforts toward helping me. They gave me films, models and histology slides (prepared slides that are used over and over), and pictures. They even said they were going to have to make up a detailed course for other students who objected to dissection. Two other students joined me when they realized they had alternatives. A lot of students think that if you don't do dissection, you can't get into medical school. But when you start making compromises, that's the end of your personal integrity.

    Jay K., New York City


    I'm planning to object to dissection, and I'm gathering information about it before I face the situation in class. The objection I have is that it seems like a terrible waste for every student in the class to dissect a frog, when one frog or one model could teach everyone the same information. Whether you take apart a frog or see it in a diagram makes no difference--you're going to learn what a frog's kidney looks like either way. Why waste a life? I don't think that I should forsake my personal rights for a class requirement. Everyone has their personal limits with regard to animals and the school should respect those. As long as there are good alternatives, people should be respected for their problems with dissection--whether moral, ethical, or just physical aversion to it.

    Heather W., Conway, AK


    ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL DISSECTION

    There are many alternatives to animal dissection for teaching biology, anatomy, physiology or zoology.

    The following teaching materials are samples of what you can suggest to your professor, department head or dean.

    While some of these alternative materials may appear expensive, they can be used for many years, by many students. In comparison, animals are expensive and can only be used once, and usually by only one to three students.

    Each description lists the name of the company or other source where innovative educational materials can be obtained. Addresses and telephone numbers are listed at the end of this booklet under "Companies That Provide Alternatives." We recommend ordering catalogs from these companies, as they may offer more detailed alternatives. If you have a specific question or need that is not addressed here, please contact the NAVS Dissection Hotline toll-free at 1-800-922-FROG (3764).

    ANATOMICAL MODELS

    The National Anti-Vivisection Society has lifelike bullfrog, fetal pig, cat, rat, shark, earthworm and other models available on a free loan basis. Call 1-800-888-NAVS (6287).

    Three-dimensional vinyl zoological models of a frog, earthworm, grasshopper and perch are available from Nystrom.

    Denoyer-Geppert makes the Great American Bullfrog with a dissectible heart.

    National Teaching Aids offers vinyl relief models of a frog and earthworm, with removable, flexible organs and carrying case.

    Human anatomy torso models with removable parts are available from Denoyer-Geppert, Nystrom, National Teaching Aids, Anatomical Chart Company and Medical Plastics Laboratory.

    Models of individual organs and systems are available from Nystrom, Denoyer-Geppert, Anatomical Chart Company and Medical Plastics.

    Hubbard Scientific makes individual desktop plastic models of nine body organs and systems, and two comparative anatomy kits of vertebrate hearts and brains.

    Armstrong Medical and Medical Plastics have many models and manikins for use in nursing, medical and emergency medical studies.

    Denoyer-Geppert, Anatomical Chart Company and Medical Plastics have a wide selection of plastic skeletons and skulls.

    VIDEO TAPES, VIDEO DISCS AND SLIDES

    A video, Advances in Humane Education: Alternatives in Biology from the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) gives an overview of many new methods that replace animal dissection. Available on a free-loan basis, or for purchase from FilmComm.

    Videotapes on human anatomy are available from Teaching Films, Films for the Humanities and Sciences, and Denoyer-Geppert (to accompany their Know Body torso model). Focus Media offers a 3-part "Your Body" series, and videos on mitosis and meiosis, DNA, evolution and natural selection.

    A 3-D imaging videodisc on human anatomy, "Atoms to Anatomy," and a videodisc, "Cell Biology," are available from Videodiscovery.

    Optical Data Corporation has a laserdisc, "Principles of Biology," in its Living Textbook Series.

    Videos on plant, animal and marine biology are available from Films for the Humanities and Sciences.

    Excellent videotapes and color slides of human cadaver dissections are available from the audiovisual section of any medical school library, or from most major publishers.

    CellServ has a video explaining the use of tissue culture in biomedical research (and guides for CellServ kits).

    CHARTS, POSTERS AND TRANSPARENCIES

    Denoyer-Geppert publishes large, full-color series of charts on human physiology, human anatomy and a survey of human biology. Also available from Denoyer-Geppert are charts of individual systems or anatomical parts.

    Nystrom sells the Frohse series of anatomical charts and the Jurica zoology chart series.

    Anatomical Chart Company has many charts of human anatomy and physiology, as well as medical, nursing and chiropractic charts.

    Biology overhead transparency atlases available from Denoyer-Geppert include: human organs and systems; apparatus of movement; histology; parasitology, reproduction and germ development in humans and animals; and a three-part series on the origin and evolution of life.

    COMPUTER PROGRAMS

    The National Anti-Vivisection Society has a large selection of computer CDs and software (for Mac and IBM) available on a free loan basis. Some of the selections include: frogs, starfish, invertebrae animals, shark, fetal pig, fruit fly genetic matching and many others. Call 1-800-888-NAVS (6287).

    Queue and Cambridge Development Lab have a large variety of programs in basic and advanced biology; human anatomy, physiology and body systems; zoology and animal classification; and genetics and population dynamics (Apple, IBM, Mac). Cambridge Development Lab also offers Biology Lab, dissection guides for a frog, earthworm and others, written by a high school teacher (Apple, Mac); and the interactive Probe Series with a computerized probe to explore 22 different biological structures and functions (Apple).

    A.D.A.M. Software has developed a program for human dissection so that students can "dissect" without a cadaver (Apple, IBM, Mac)

    The Rat Stack is an interactive "atlas" which uses photo images and diagrams to show different layers/stages of a rat dissection (Mac). Sheffield BioScience Programs.

    Digital Frog, a program in frog anatomy with a database and quizzes, is available from Digital Frog, International (Apple, IBM, Mac).

    BioLab Frog, from Pierian Springs, allows a student to "dissect" a frog, examine the organs in detail, compare a human and frog heart, and reconstruct the frog (Apple, MAC, MS-DOS).

    Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA) has a list of alternative software for psychology courses (see address in list below).

    NON-ANIMAL PROJECTS

    Several companies offer computer-based labs, utilizing students as subjects. Queue and Cambridge Development Lab offer the Bio-feedback MicroLab with several sensors to measure various body functions; and The Body Electric for examining brain waves (EEG), electrocardiograms (EKG) and muscle electrical activity (EMG) (both Apple). Queue also has a Cardiovascular Fitness Lab (Apple, IBM) and an Experiments in Human Physiology program (Apple).

    Phipps & Bird manufactures the BioMonitor (Harvard Biometer), a simplified EKG to replace frog pithing in the study of heart functions. They offer other kits for studying lung functions and blood pressure. Lafayette Instruments and Intellitool have similar kits, including Physiogrip, a muscle physiology lab.

    Hubbard Scientific offers kits for experiments in fruit fly genetics, immunology and evolution, mitosis, probability in genetics, and plant and animal cell structure.

    The CellServ program has four kits which provide human cell culture materials for studying tissue culture and in vitro toxicology.

    The American Fund for Alternatives to Animal Research (AFAAR) and the Center for Advanced Training in Cell and Molecular Biology offer a yearly tuition-free, one-week course, Introduction to Tissue Culture and In Vitro Toxicity Testing, in Washington, D.C. It is open to high school and college biology teachers, college biology, pre-med or science students, and high school seniors.

    Students also can learn effectively from activities, such as making a 3-D model or drawing to scale a heart of a particular animal. Examples of this hands-on type of learning are available in a monograph, Animals in Biology Classrooms, from the National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT).

    BOOKS, PAMPHLETS

    REFERENCE BOOKS

    Pictorial Anatomy of the Frog, Cat, Dogfish, Fetal Pig, Necturus, Human Embryo-series by Gilbert. University of Washington Press.

    Human Anatomy, 2nd Edition: A Text and Colour Atlas by Gosling. J.B. Lippincott.

    Gray's Anatomy from Running Press is especially good for introductory biology students.

    The Johns Hopkins Atlas of Human Functional Anatomy, 3rd edition. Detailed color illustrations, accompanying text and an extensive glossary of terms emphasize functional living anatomy. Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body, 2nd Edition, by Rohen and Yokochi. Color photos of human dissections provide a 3-dimensional quality. Denoyer-Geppert.

    LABORATORY MANUALS

    Laboratory Anatomy of the Human Body, 4th Edition, by Butterworth. Wm. C. Brown.

    W.H. Freeman publishes Laboratory Separates, a series on the anatomy and dissection of a rat, fetal pig, cat and others; and Atlas and Dissection Guide for Comparative Anatomy by Wischnitzer. Although we are opposed to dissection, these reprints from lab manuals may serve as a dissection alternative.

    Wm. C. Brown Co. offers customized publishing services so a book can be compiled which eliminates depictions of dissection, and uses only desired exercises.

    ADVANCED COLORING BOOKS

    Adult-oriented coloring books can provide a hands-on alternative to dissection.

    Gray's Anatomy Coloring Book by Stark and Driggs. Running Press.

    Science Coloring Books from Harper Collins include:

    1. Anatomy Coloring Book
    2. The Physiology Coloring Book
    3. The Biology Coloring Book
    4. The Human Brain Coloring Book
    5. The Human Evolution Coloring Book
    6. The Marine Biology Coloring Book
    7. The Zoology Coloring Book
    8. The Botany Coloring Book

    The A & P Coloring Workbook: A Complete Study Guide, supplements any human anatomy and physiology text through exercises, artwork and visualization. Benjamin/Cummings.

    RESOURCES FOR MEDICAL, VETERINARY AND PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS.

    Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM)
    P.O. Box 6322
    Washington, D.C. 20015
    (202) 686-2210

    Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights (AVAR)
    P.O. Box 6269
    Vacaville, CA 95696 (707) 451-1391

    Psychologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PsyETA)
    P.O. Box 1297
    Washington Grove, MD 20880
    (301) 963-4751

    COMPANIES THAT PROVIDE ALTERNATIVES

    A.D.A.M. Software
    1600 Riveredge Parkway, Ste. 800
    Atlanta, GA 30328
    (800) 755-ADAM

    Anatomical Chart Company
    8221 Kimball Ave.
    Skokie, IL 60076
    (800) 621-7500

    Armstrong Medical Industries
    P.O. Box 700
    Lincolnshire, IL 60069-0700
    (800) 323-4220

    Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company
    390 Bridge Parkway
    Redwood City, CA 94065
    (800) 950-BOOK

    Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    2460 Kerper Blvd.
    Dubuque, IA 52001
    (800) 331-2111

    Cambridge Development Laboratory
    86 West Street
    Waltham, MA 02154
    (800) 637-0047

    Carolina Biological
    2700 York Road
    Burlington, NC 27215
    (800) 334-5551

    CellServ Program
    McCort-Ward Building, Rm #103
    The Catholic University of America
    Washington, D.C. 20064
    (202) 319-5725

    The Center for Advanced Training in Cell and Molecular Biology
    Department of Biology
    The Catholic University of America
    Washington, D.C. 20064
    (202) 319-6161

    Denoyer-Geppert Science Company
    5225 Ravenswood Ave.
    Chicago, IL 60640-2028
    (800) 621-1014
    Ask for general catalog or Sharing the Knowledge: Human Anatomy and Physiology Resource Catalog.

    Digital Frog International
    Trillium Place, RR #2
    Puslinch, Ontario N0B 2J0
    Canada
    (519) 766-1097

    EME Corporation
    P.O. Box 2805
    Danbury, CT 06813-2805
    (800)848-2050, (203)798-2050

    FilmComm
    641 North Avenue
    Glendale Heights, IL 60139
    (708) 790-3300

    Films for the Humanities and Sciences
    P.O. Box 2053
    Princeton, NJ 08543
    (800) 257-5126

    W.H. Freeman and Company
    Customer Service
    4419 West 1980 South
    Salt Lake City, UT 84104
    (800) 877-5351

    Harper Collins Publishers
    P.O. Box 588
    Dunmore, PA 18512
    (800) 331-3761

    Hubbard Scientific
    1120 Halbleib Road
    Chippewa Falls, WI 54729
    (800) 289-9299

    Intellitool
    P.O. Box 459
    Batavia, IL 60510-0459
    (800) 227-3805

    Johns Hopkins University Press
    Hampden Station
    Baltimore, MD 21211
    (800) 537-5487

    Lafayette Instrument Company
    P.O. Box 5729
    Lafayette, IN 47903-5729
    (800) 428-7545 or (317) 423-1505

    J.B. Lippincott Company
    P.O. Box 1580
    Hagerstown, MD 21741
    (800)638-3030

    Medical Plastics Laboratory
    P.O. Box 38
    Gatesville, TX 76528
    (800) 433-5539 ; (800) 722-8525 in TX ; (800) 633-2262 in Canada

    National Association for the Advancement of Humane Education (NAAHE)
    67 Essex Turnpike
    East Haddam, CT 06423-1736
    (203) 434-8666

    National Association of Biology Teachers
    11250 Roger Bacon Drive, #19
    Reston, VA 22090
    (703) 471-1134

    National Teaching Aids
    1845 Highland Ave.
    New Hyde Park, NY 11040
    (516) 326-2555

    Nystrom
    3333 N. Elston Ave.
    Chicago, IL 60618-5898
    (800) 621-8086

    Optical Data Corporation
    30 Technology Drive
    Warren, NJ 07059
    (800) 524-2481

    Pierian Springs Software
    5200 S.W. Macadam Ave., Suite 570
    Portland, OR 97201
    (800) 472-8578

    Phipps & Bird
    P.O. Box 27324
    Richmond, VA 23261
    (800) 955-7621

    Queue
    338 Commerce Drive
    Fairfield, CT 06430
    (800) 232-2224 or (203) 335-0906 in CT and Canada

    Running Press
    125 South 22nd Street
    Philadelphia, PA 19103
    (800) 345-5359

    Sheffield BioScience Programs
    Attn: Dr. D.G. Dewhurst
    11 Robinson Drive
    Harrogate HG2 9DJ
    United Kingdom

    Teaching Films
    1560 Sherman Avenue
    Evanston, IL 60201
    (800) 323-9084, In Illinois Call Collect (708) 328-6700

    University of Washington Press
    P.O. Box 50096
    Seattle, WA 98145
    (800) 441-4115

    Ventura Educational Systems
    910 Romona Ave., Ste. E
    Grover Beach, CA 93433
    (800) 336-1022

    Videodiscovery
    1700 Westlake Ave., North, Ste. 600
    Seattle, WA 98109-3012
    (800) 548-3472

    Ward's Biology
    P.O. Box 92912
    Rochester, NY 14692
    (800) 962-2660

    OTHER STEPS TO TAKE

    Now that you're aware of your right to refuse participation in dissection and know of viable, humane alternatives, you may wish to pursue animal advocacy to a greater degree. Listed are some suggestions:

    JOIN NAVS

    As a student member of the National Anti-Vivisection Society, you will be kept abreast on issues related to animals in research, education and product testing. Your membership includes a year's subscription to the NAVS Bulletin and access to our library of resources.

    BECOME A CRUELTY-FREE CONSUMER

    Purchase only those cosmetics and personal care products which are not tested on animals. NAVS regularly produces a guide, "Personal Care For People Who Care," to the animal testing policies of major manufacturers and distributors of personal care products. The 1996 edition contains the names and addresses for over 750 cruelty-free product makers. A copy of Personal Care is included with each NAVS membership.

    ACTIVELY PURSUE HUMANE SCIENCE

    Look to science fairs and other extracurricular endeavors to demonstrate scientific progress achieved without the use of animals. Reference science fair guidelines and encourage your school to adopt rules which prohibit any invasive animal experimentation.

    ILLUSTRATE YOUR COMPASSION FOR ANIMALS

    Enter the annual NAVS Art for Animals Contest. Submit original paintings, poetry, line art, sculpture, music or video forms which best express your feelings for animal welfare and against vivisection. Call NAVS for details (1-800-888-NAVS).

    WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID

    "You are not alone in your feelings of compassion towards animals. Throughout history, prominent spokespeople from all walks of life have voiced their support of our animal companions and opposition to animal experimentation. "Until he extends the circle of compassion to all living creatures, man himself will not find peace." Albert Schweitzer

    "There are hundreds of paths to scientific knowledge. The cruel ones can teach us only what we ought not to know." George Bernard Shaw

    "Kindness is the only service that will stand the storm of life and not wash out. It will wear well, look well and be remembered long after the prism of politeness or the complexion of courtesy has faded away." Abraham Lincoln

    "Our task must be to free ourselves...by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty." Albert Einstein

    "It's a matter of taking the side of the weak against the strong, something the best people have always done." Harriet Beecher Stowe

    "We cannot have peace among men whose hearts find delight in killing any living creature." Rachel Carson

    "The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated." Mahatma Gandhi

Reprinted with permission of:
Marcia Kramer
Publications Editor
The National Anti-Vivisection Society
53 W. Jackson Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60604
Phone: 1-800-888-6287
Email: NAVS@navs.org